Irregular Present Tense

"GO" verbs

There are a few verbs which have an irregular Yo form.  They are known as "GO" verbs.  Here's why:


Tengo Tenemos
Tienes Tenéis
Tiene Tienen

First, tener is also a Stem changing verb (e-ie).  But look at the yo form.  Notice the "go" on the end?  That's it.  that's all the mystery to it.  Just another irregular verb.

Here is another go verb:


Pongo Ponemos
Pones Ponéis
Pone Ponen

This is just a go verb and not a stem changer.

The Go verbs:

tener tengo
poner pongo
salir salgo
hacer hago
traer traigo

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OY verbs

Again, here is a verb with an irregular Yo form.


Doy Damos
Das Dáis
Da Dan

Notice the "oy" on the end of the yo form.  That's it.  Nothing more.

Here are some others:

Dar Doy
Estar (this verb has other irregularities) Estoy
Ir (this verb has other irregularities) Voy

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ZCO verbs

Spanish has several verb types with irregular Yo forms.  Here is another:


Conozco Conocemos
Conoces Conocéis
Conoce Conocen


Conduzco Conducimos
Conduces Conducís
Conduce Conducen

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G->J verbs

Spanish has several verb types with irregular Yo forms.  Here is another:


Recojo Recogemos
Recoges Recogéis
Recoge Recogen

Elegir (e-i)

Elijo Elegimos
Elijes Elegís
Elije Eligen

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"Tener que" and "Ir a"

In Spanish, as in English, you may want to say, "I have to read" instead of "I read."  The same applies to "I am going to read" versus "I read."  

Tener To have
Ir To go

You can't simply say "I have I read" or "I going I read."  There are other words that go in between so the sentence makes sense.  Same principle here.

Tener que To have to....
Ir a To be going to....


Yo tengo que leer I have to read
Tú tienes que leer You have to read
El/Ella/Ud. tiene que leer He/She/You has/have to read
Nosotros tenemos que leer We have to read
Vosotros tenéis que leer Y'all have to read
Ellos/Ellas/Uds. tienen que leer They/You all have to read

What changes in each example?  What stays the same?  In each sentence, the subject changes and consequently the form of tener (I have versus He has).  What does not change is "que" and the verb after it.  Notice that in each sentence, it is ALWAYS "leer."  Never do you conjugate tener AND leer.  You would never say, "You tengo que leo."  In English you don't say, "I have to I read."  Same reason in Spanish-it doesn't make any sense.

Other Examples:

Yo tengo que comer I have to eat
Tú tienes que estudiar You have to study
El/Ella/Ud. tiene que comer He/She/You has/have to eat
Nosotros tenemos que estudiar We have to study
Vosotros tenéis que vivir Y'all have to live
Ellos/Ellas/Uds. tienen que vivir They/You all have to live

Notice again that the verb after "que" does not change.

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In Spanish there are a group of verbs that behave differently than the others.  You don't conjugate them the same as you might the others.  The best example is "Gustar."


Me gusta/n Nos gusta/n
Te gusta/n Os gusta/n
Le gusta/n Les gusta/n

First, you might notice that the standard pronouns are not being used (Yo, Tú, Ella, etc.).  Instead these (me, te, le, nos, os, les) are indirect object pronouns.  Also, you may notice that there are only two conjugations for gustar-gusta or gustan.  Confused yet?

The verb gustar means "to like" as far as you are concerned.  Literally, it means to please or make happy or something.  The factor that determines whether you use gusta or gustan has nothing to do with the person who likes, rather it is the object liked that makes that determination.


What you say in English How you say it in Spanish Literal translation
I like salsa. Me gusta salsa. Salsa is pleasing to me.
Do you like salsa? ¿Te gusta salsa. Is salsa pleasing to you?
I like tacos. Me gustan tacos. Tacos are pleasing to me.
We like tacos. Nos gustan tacos. Tacos are pleasing to us.

Gusta is used for one thing you like.  Gustan is used for two or more things you like.

Also, if you "like to (verb)" you always use gusta.  For example:

A chart:

Me gusta (noun or verb(s)) I like (noun or verb(s))
Me gustan (nouns) I like (nouns)
Te gusta (noun or verb(s)) You like (noun or verb(s))
Te gustan (nouns) You like (nouns)
Le gusta (noun or verb(s)) He/She/You like (noun or verb(s))
Le gustan (nouns) He/She/You like (nouns)
Nos gusta (noun or verb(s)) We like (noun or verb(s))
Nos gustan (nouns) We like (nouns)
Os gusta (noun or verb(s)) Y'all like (noun or verb(s))
Os gustan (nouns) Y'all like (nouns)
Les gusta (noun or verb(s)) They/You all like (noun or verb(s))
Les gustan (nouns) They/You all like (nouns)

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